What are the types of pumps in the food industry?


A pump is a device that, by taking mechanical force from an external source and transferring it to a fluid, increases the pressure and ultimately transfers it to the desired location, whether at a higher altitude or downstream; It can be said that a pump is a device that transfers fluid from one place to another.

Types of pumps:

As you know, there are different types of pumps, and of course they are used for different uses. Now pumps can be divided according to different characteristics, one of the most common of which is based on how energy is transferred from the pump to the fluid, depending on the two The main categories of centrifugation and positive displacement are divided into:

  1. Centrifugal pump or centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pumps are the most widely used pumps for transferring water, which, with the help of the special shape of centrifugal impellers, convert the electrical energy of the electromotor into centrifugal energy and move the fluid with this created force.

Almost all the pumps that are common among us and we know are centrifuges, including: domestic water pumps, floor pumps, floor pumps, sludge pumps and… which are divided into several models depending on the type of impeller and the type of centrifugal force they generate:

1.1 -Radial Flow Pump

1.2- Mixed Flow Pump

1.3- Axial Flow Pump

 Application of centrifugal pump in food industry:

Centrifugal pumps are pumps that are suitable for pumping low viscosity fluids at high flow rates (high flow rates), and are ideal for applications that require the transfer of large volumes of fluid.

These pumps are commonly used to transport water, but are also sometimes used for dilute fuels and low-viscosity chemicals. Also, centrifugal pumps, especially in the closed impeller model, are clean only for pumping water and should not have any impurities, but in some models, such as vortex impellers, the pump can also transfer a certain amount of impurities.

  1. Positive displacement pump:

Positive displacement pumps are designed in such a way that the fluid is drawn into the pump from one side and exits from the other side at the end of each cycle (depending on the pump). The purpose of the cycle, depending on the type of pump, can be a rotation of the gears or a movement of the piston; These pumps can transfer a certain amount of fluid, even mixed with gas / air, without affecting the height. However, the flow generated by the positive displacement pumps is intermittent and periodic and, unlike the centrifugal pump, is not permanent.

2.1- Reciprocating pump

In these pumps, the force required to create pressure in the fluid is created by a piston which, by moving backwards and creating suction, causes water to be drawn into the cylinder and then pumps the water back out.

2.1.1 – Plunger Pump

2.1.2- Diaphragm Pump

2.2- Rotary pump

2.2.1- Gear Pump

2.2.2- Lobe Pump

2.2.3 – Vane Pump

2.2.4 – Progressive Cavity Pump

2.2.5 – Peristaltic pumps

2.2.6 – Screw Pump

Application of positive displacement pump in food industry:

Positive displacement pumps, due to their special mechanism, are mostly used for high viscosity fluids, as well as for applications that require high pressure, but despite the reduction in flow, its efficiency is not affected and remains constant throughout the pressure transfer path.

Although centrifugal pumps are more commonly used because of their convenience and availability, positive displacement pumps come to our aid where they are unable to do so, and they can easily do the hard work.

As mentioned earlier, positive displacement pumps are suitable for transporting high viscosity fluids, such as concentrated oils, slurries, sludges, pastes, and so on. Also, due to their internal purity, especially in models such as vacuum advanced, these pumps are very suitable for transferring fluids with large amounts of suspended solids, such as groundwater discharge or oil sludge.

In addition, models such as screws and blades are ideal for transporting cleaner fluids such as fuels and lubricating oils.

In general, positive displacement pumps are slower than centrifugal pumps, but in rotary models, such as lobes, vacuum propellants, and precursor pumps, which have a larger chamber pump that can produce a smooth flow, they are suitable for shear-sensitive fluids. , Such as olives that should not be pressed and crushed, or glue that should not lose its stickiness, or jellies that need to maintain their jelly

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