Milk fortification

Erichche – Milk fortificationt:
History – Milk fortification in the early first half century. Vitamin D fortification of milk was the first in the UK
At present, milk is fortified with vitamins A and D. In 1939, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it was best to
The amount of vitamin D added to milk should not exceed 400 IU per quart (equivalent to 1 liter).

Milk is a nutrient that has:

Ten essential amino acids
High quality protein
Essential fatty acids
Other microbial foods

Nutrient content of milk:

Excellent source milk
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin 2B
  • A good source of vitamin A.
It is a poor source of vitamin D.
Changes in milk vitamins are observed with the change of seasons.
In summer the cow usually feeds on fresh truffles and in winter on stored dried fodder.

The result of this change is:

On Vitamin A Fresh milk in America IU1800-600 per liter
Vitamin D is also in variations from IU40-5 per liter.
To prevent human health hazards associated with pathogenic microorganisms in raw milk
Milk used by humans is often warm milk.
In developing countries, most milk is produced by small farms
And sold directly to the consumer.

Common industrial heat treatment for liquid milk includes:

Pasteurization of treatment with high heat or very high temperature (UHT)

How to make milk powder:

First, freshly warmed milk
It is then dried during spray-rolling or cylindrical drying processes.
These industrial processes deplete some nutrients, especially vitamins that are naturally present in milk, and cause them to be lost.
Nutrients that are lost during milk processing can be added to milk during the fortification process.
In addition, in many countries, milk fat is exported industrially (in whole or in part) to produce low-fat or skim milk.
By removing milk fat, fat-soluble vitamins are also removed, so these vitamins can also be replaced by the fortification process.
Enrichment of milk with vitamins A or D is limited to a few countries,
In some US dairy industries, milk is fortified with vitamin C, calcium in addition to vitamins A and D.
Beta-carotene is also added to some dairy products, such as butter, as a color-enhancing agent.
Dry milk and aromatic or powdered milk powders are often fortified with vitamins A and D – calcium and iron;
Infant formulas based on milk or breast milk-rich foods are fortified with a variety of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids.
In Chile, milk powders used in infant supplementation are fortified with vitamin C, iron, copper and zinc.
The amount of nutrients added to milk depends on a number of factors:
Milk consumption level
Sensory characteristics of milk (smell, taste and color)
Nutrient stability during milk processing and storage
Liquid milk, especially skimmed milk, is fortified with at least vitamins A and D at 5,000 and 500 international units per liter, respectively.
Milk enrichment technology:
, All vitamins and minerals that can be added to milk are available in dried powder and fat-soluble vitamins in the form of oil.
Because more than one nutrient may usually be added to milk, it is preferable that they are already mixed together and made evenly.
This will ensure the correct and uniform addition of micro-nutrients to the final product.
. For example, you can mix 1 part of a mixture of vitamins A and D, which contains 1 million international units of vitamin A and 1000 international units of vitamin D, in 10 parts of hot oil (50-40 degrees Celsius), then with 50 parts. Fresh milk then
homogenized the wheel. You can also prepare a vitamin mixture (usually 5 grams per liter) in 8 liters of milk plus 2 liters of cream and then homogenize. In the case of water-soluble vitamins and micronutrients, nutrients can be diluted 20 times their
weight in milk at 45 ° C. The mixing operation must be complete with turbulence. All these mixtures are added to the final product.
During the process of processing and storage, various types of micronutrients may be lost. To compensate for this, appropriate amounts of these substances should be added to milk.
Quality control – to ensure the desired amount of micronutrients – and before using them in the final product, the necessary tests must be repeated. To do this, of course, special methods and equipment must be available.
Strict quality control plans and programs should be considered, especially for volatile nutrients such as vitamin C. Vitamins A and D can be quantified by HPLC. This method is accurate, but its equipment is expensive and requires relevant specialists.
Spectrometric methods are cheaper and relatively easier to work with. Quantitative methods for other micronutrients include fluorometric method for vitamins B1 and B2 and spectrophotometric method for iron and calcium minerals.

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